Influence of soil compaction and moisture variation on development of sesame (sesamum indicum l.) plant in a sandy loamy soil
- International Journal of Hydrology
Mohammed J Mamman,1 Musa SM,2 Abdullahi AS2
This study determines the influence of soil compaction on shoot, root development and nutrients uptake of sesame (sesamum indicum l.) plant in a sandy loamy soil. The research was carried out in Mokwa local government of Niger state during wet season. Three soil samples of 300g weight from the top 20cm of the soil profile were taken from college farm. The initial moisture content of the soil was determined using oven-drying method. The soil samples were air dried, large clods broken and grounded. The soil samples were then mixed to obtain a homogenous mixture of the sample. The soil moisture content was then raised to varying moisture levels of 10%, 12%, and 14% exceeding the optimum moisture content of sandy loam which is 12% moisture. Each sample was subjected to five levels of compaction energy using 0,5,10,15,20 blows of a standard proctor hammer in cylindrical cores of 17cm in height and 10cm diameter in accordance with the standard proctor compaction procedure. Four holes were made in each can and four seeds were sown in each hole to be thinned into one seed per hole (four plants in each can). The depth of sowing was one cm. The seedlings were tinned to a maximum of five (5) per core at 15 days after planting. The heights (cm) of the seedling were taken with a measuring tape at 5-days interval to 20 days after planting. The experiment was laid out in randomized complete block design (RCBD). The data collected were subjected to descriptive statistical analysis, regression analysis and analysis of variance. The results from the soil physical properties analysis shows that the soil is sandy loam with sand being 76.8 % and clay as 11.2%. The bulk average density was 1.75 g/cm3 . Results obtained from the study shows that compactive efforts significantly affect plant growth and development. It also shows that as compactive effort increases, the soil bulk density and penetration also increases. The effect of number of hammer blows on soil bulk density and penetration resistance was significant. The effect of excessive moisture also affects germination and plant growth. Moderate soil compaction has beneficial effect. This is due to greater water retention. In general, it appears that there is a great potential in growing sesame on sandy loam soil, if the level of compaction is maintained at moderate level, which does not impede root development and other plant requirements.
compaction, penetration resistance, hammer blows, germination, sesame, soil