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Prevalence and co-infection of Toxoplasma gondii and Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection among women of child-bearing age in Osun state Nigeria


International Clinical Pathology Journal
Olaniran O, Olaniran OO, Adenekan NP, Awoyeni EA, Oyetoke OO, Adegoke DA, Oladosu SA, Hassan TA, Osavwe JA

Abstract

This study assessed the epidemiology of Toxoplasma gondii and Human immunodeficiency Virus and their co-infection infection in women of childbearing age in communities in Osun State, Nigeria. The study also determines the factors that facilitate the organisms among the studied groups and possible interaction between the prevalence of infection and the risk factors. These were done with a view to providing baseline information on the mode of T. gondii and HIV transmission. Sera were analyzed for the presence of IgG and IgM antibodies against T. gondii by commercially available enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kit (Demeditec Diagnostics GmbH, Germany) conducted according to the manufacturer’s instructions. The optical densities of wells were measured by a photometer at a wavelength of 450 nm and the detection of HIV was done using (Determine) rapid immunochromatographic (IC) test which are in strip form. Determination of the blood groups of the donors was done using commercially prepared Anti sera A, B, AB and anti D that determine the Rhesus blood group. The overall prevalence of T. gondii among the women of child-bearing age in selected six communities in Osun state was 74.2%, while the overall prevalence of HIV among the women was 2.6% and co-infection of T. gondii and HIV was 1.5%. The prevalence of T. gondii was lowest (57.8%) among women from Ile Ife, a peri-urban community and highest (100%) in women residing in Alajue, a rural community. The prevalence of T. gondii infection was significantly higher (p= 0.001) among Islamic women (85.9%) than in Christian women (68.2%) while the prevalence of HIV (2.7%) in Christianity and co-infection of T. gondii and HIV (2.3%) was higher among Islam. The highest prevalence of T. gondii (83.6%) was recorded in women with primary education while the lowest of (58.7%) was recorded in women with tertiary education (p =0.037) while the highest prevalence of HIV infection of 2.9% and co-infection of 1.8% was recorded in secondary school level. International Clinical Pathology Journal Research Article Open Access The highest prevalence of T. gondii (78.5%) was recorded in women that reside in rural area and the lowest (67.5%) was recorded in women that reside in peri-urban area (p=0.016) and also the prevalence of HIV (4.5%) (p= 0.045) and co-infection of T. gondii and HIV (3.2%) (p=0.025) was higher in periurban area. The highest prevalence of 84.0% of T. gondii was recorded in house wives while the lowest value of 59.3% was recorded in civil servant and the highest prevalence of HIV infection of 7.7% in house wives and coinfection of 3.3% was recorded in trading. The highest prevalence of T. gondii infection of 100.0% was recorded in women with blood group AB negative while the lowest prevalence of 30.0% was recorded in women with blood group A negative and the highest prevalence of HIV infection of 6.3% was recorded in women with blood group B negative and O negative each. Co-infection has highest prevalence of 6.3% in blood group B negative. The highest prevalence of 77.1% of T. gondii was recorded in women with one miscarriage while the lowest value of 73.3% was recorded in women with two miscarriages and the highest prevalence of HIV infection of 5.7% was recorded in women with one miscarriage while the lowest prevalence of 2.5% was recorded in women with no miscarriage. The highest prevalence of 100.0% of T. gondii and 2.7% of HIV infection was recorded in women with no pregnancy and the co-infection 1.6% was recorded in women no pregnancy. The study concluded that there was high prevalence of T. gondii infection (74.2%) and also implicates HIV (2.6%) and co-infection of both (1.5%) in the studied population. Hence, there is the need for health education and create awareness of the diseases and its transmission to women of reproductive age group in general and pregnant women in particular to reduce the risk of T. gondii and HIV in pregnant women.

Keywords

pregnant women, HIV, T. gondii, toxoplasmosis

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