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Development and validation of a questionnaire for assessment of memory impairment and dementia, by a new modified memory function rating scale


MOJ Public Health
Ram B Singh,1 Agnieszka Wilkzynska,2 Viliam Mojto,3 Jan Fedacko,4 Ghizal Fatima,5 MA Niaz,6 Sanya Jain7

Abstract

Background: Since, behavioural factors can also predispose dementia, there is an unmet
need to develop methods for its early diagnosis, which appears to be crucial for its
prevention. This study aims to find out the prevalence of dementia, emphasizing on early
symptoms, to validate a new modified questionnaire.
Study Design and Setting. Cross-sectional survey in a hospital.
Subjects and methods: All subjects (n=2002) above 25 years of age (1016 males and
986 females) were randomly selected and recruited from urban population of Moradabad,
North India. Validated questionnaires were used for the assessment of cognitive decline and
dementia by a new modified memory function rating scale. Subjects were classified in to
normal, mild, moderate and severe dementia by assessment of memory function.
Results: The overall prevalence of dementia (6.84%,n=137) was significantly more
among men compared to women (8.26%) vs 5.37%, n=84 vs 53, P<0.02). However, the
prevalence of dementia (22.37%,n=100) was much greater among subjects above 55 years
of age in both sexes and trend was significant. The risk of memory dysfunction or dementia
overall showed a graded increase with age from 25 to 84 years, and with decrease in social
classes, in both sexes and the trends were significant (P<0.02). The frequency of tobacco
intake, alcoholism and western type food intake, were significantly more common among
patients with dementia compared to those without dementia. Therefore, the cause of lower
prevalence of dementia in women, may be due to lower intake of alcohol and tobacco
among Indian women.
Conclusions: This modified questionnaire can be successfully used for assessment of
memory function in various social classes of north India, because this instrument allowed
us to identify overall 6.84% (n=137) patients with dementia.

Keywords

western diet, sedentary behavior, mastication, cardiovascular diseases

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