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Role of checkpoint inhibitors immunotherapy in non-muscle invasive bladder cancer: current methods and future perspectives


Urology & Nephrology Open Access Journal
Ayman Agag,1 Naufal Naushad,2 Asad Manzoor,3 Sami A Abbas,4 Abdalla Ali Deb,5 Hosam Serag6

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Abstract

Immuno-therapy involvement in bladder urothelial malignancies is growing very fast. The use of Immuno-therapy with check-point inhibitor has greatly developed since it was first approved as a second-line treatment for cases who had formerly failed platinum-based chemotherapy. There are recognized applications for first-line metastatic illness in platinumineligible or cisplatin-ineligible PD-L1 diagnosed cases, as well as a label for BCGrefractory high-risky non-muscle invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC). It is now being studied in neo-adjuvant and adjuvant muscle invasive bladder cancer (MIBC) clinical trials. This review discusses the clinical trials that led to these FDA agreements, as well as prospective and ongoing trials. Current clinical guidelines support Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) as the primary treating option for intermediate to high-risk NMIBC. Despite the intra-vesical BCG-instillation, intra-vesical relapse occurs in a considerable number of individuals with intermediate to high risk NMIBC. Furthermore, treating BCG-nonresponsive NMIBC is still difficult. For these individuals with BCG-nonresponsive NMIBC, there are no viable therapy alternatives other than radical cystectomy, which has been shown to have excellent oncological results. In this regard, for the care of BCG-nonresponsive NMIBC, safe and reliable noninvasive or lesser-invasive therapeutic alternatives with adequate oncological results are needed. Regarding the latest introduction of immuno-therapeutic medications, the treatment of progressive or metastatic urothelial cancer has substantially advanced. These developments have sparked a surge in interest in immuno-therapeutic medications for NMIBC, particularly BCG-nonresponsive NMIBC. The goal of this literature review is to provide and debate the most up-to-date information on the function of Immuno-therapy in BCG-nonresponsive NMIBC and the presently accessible treatment options. Furthermore, this page highlights the current research in this topic. We wanted to convey the current state of Immuno-therapy in NMIBC and discuss future directions. 

Keywords

Immuno-therapy, NMIBC, bladder-tumour, urothelial cancers, intra-vesical, Bacillus Calmette-Guérin vaccine (BCG vaccine)

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