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Cerebral venous thrombosis and Covid 19: Literature review


Journal of Neurology & Stroke
Carlos Alexandre Martins Zicarelli,1 Jonathan Vinicius Martins,2 Wesley Vieira Doni,2 Rafael Rodrigues Pinheiro dos Santos,2 Ana Carla Mondek Rampazzo,2 Gabrielli Algazal Marin,Mariana Ramos do Nascimento,2 Igor Ruan de Araújo Caetano,2 Maria Letícia Nogueira,2 José Ângelo Favoreto Guarnieri,3 Victor Guilherme Batistela Pereira,3 Franciele Frazoli,3 Ivan Hattanda4

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Abstract

Introduction: Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome-Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) was first detected in December 2019 in the city of Wuhan, China, and has since taken on worldwide proportions. It is known that individuals with Coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19) have systemic clinical manifestations. Among the multisystemic effects, cerebral venous thrombosis (CVT) is responsible for high mortality rates. In this sense, understanding the association between CVT and SARS-CoV-2 infection directly impacts the disease’s morbidity and mortality. Methodology: Literature review in the PubMed and Embase databases, with the following search terms: “COVID-19”, “SARS-CoV-2”, “Venous thromboembolism”, “Thrombosis”, “Cerebral Venous Thrombosis”, “Intracranial Sinus Thrombosis” and “Cranial Sinus Thrombosis”. The selected articles were written in English, which addressed the various aspects of COVID-19. Results and discussion: CVT are a rare complication of COVID-19, with an incidence between 0.02 to 1% of hospitalized patients. However, it can reach about 75% of mortality in affected individuals. Pathophysiology seems to be associated with the state of hypercoagulability and the systemic inflammatory process resulting from viral infection. Thus, recent studies show a consensus on the early anticoagulation of patients affected by the virus, to reduce mortality in these cases. However, the differences between the types of anticoagulation, Low Molecular Weight Heparin (LMWH), Unfractionated Heparin (UFH), Dabigatran have not yet been well established, although there is a predilection for the use of LMWH. Also, thrombectomy is a therapeutic intervention option that should be evaluated, due to the risk of additional endothelial injury from the use of stent retrievers. Conclusion: Although it has a relatively low incidence, CVT aggravates the condition and increases the risk of death for patients with COVID-19. Because of this, early diagnosis and evaluation of therapeutic options for CVT are essential for the development of clinical management

Keywords

COVID-19, coronavirus, thrombosis, venous thrombosis, central nervous system, intracranial thrombosis

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