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Oil and pectin extraction from citrus paradise(grape) peels: A case of response surface optimization

MOJ Food Processing & Technology
Ololade Moses Olatunji,1 Kingsley Charles Umani,1 Jemimah Timothy Ekanem,2 Horsfall Ibiba Taiwo,3,4Samuel Kingsley Okon1

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This work reflects the extraction process of oil and pectin from grape peels using a response surface method in which a central composite rotatable design of 2x5 and 3x5 was used for the two extractions.  Output temperatures (80–100°C) and heating times (5–9 hours) were used for oil extraction, while (80 -100oC) and heating times (20 – 60 minutes) and a pH of extract (1.0 – 3.0) were selected for pectin removal. Oil yield ranged from 7.90 - 15.30%, while pectin yield ranged from 19.90 – 35.70%. A maximum oil yield of 15.30% was obtained at a temperature of 90oC at a heating time of 9.0 hours, while a maximum yield of pectin of 35.70% was obtained at a pH of 2.5, 95oC temperature and 50 minutes heating time. The optimum value for oil production was 15.63% at an average temperature of 99.64oC and heating time of 8.99 hours, while the average value of pectin yield was 38.01% at an output temperature of 94.00oC, the period release time of 58.00 minutes with a pH of 2.00. The deviation between the experimental and predicted values was low and not significant. All processing conditions have important impacts on the extraction of oil and pectin from grape peels.


oil, pectin, drying temperature, reaction time, response surface methodology