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Early immune reconstitution assessment by flow/mass cytometry in autologous hematopoietic transplantation performed in a patient with multiple myeloma


Hematology & Transfusion International Journal
Carlos Agustín Villegas-Valverde MD MsC,Yendry Ventura-Carmenate MD,Fatima M Alkaabi MD,2Antonio Bencomo-Hernández PhD1

Abstract

Evaluation of immunoprofile as predictive and prognostic biomarker are essential to follow up patients in Multiple Myeloma after autologous hematopoietic stem cells transplantation (AHSCT).  It can be defining the engraftment and predicts complications. An AHSCT was performed for the first time in the United Arab Emirates to treat a patient with multiple myeloma. We apply the evaluation of the patient's immune status before and during the early follow-up by flow and mass cytometry. The analysis revealed a decrease in all leukocyte populations in blood seven days after transplantation, mainly of B and T helper lymphocytes. The patients showed diarrhea and cellulitis as complications.  An increase in regulatory T and NK lymphocytes was evidenced at the same time. 28 days’ post-transplantation, all lymphocyte populations were recovered, except for B lymphocytes, a high level of T regulatory and NK was maintained. The early immune restoration coincided with the recovery of the complications presented by the patient. the leukocyte composition of apheresis was similar to that found in blood at baseline time. Our study evidenced that the extended immunoprofile by mass cytometry could be useful to predict the outcome and response to transplantation.

Keywords

immune reconstitution, autologous hematopoietic stem cells transplantation, flow cytometry, mass cytometry

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