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Characterization, antibiotic sensitivity assay and phylogenetic analysis of bacterial isolates of river water

Journal of Bacteriology & Mycology: Open Access
Muhammad Afzal,1,2 Mehreen Saeed,2 Niaz Muhammad,2 Baharullah Khattak,2,5 Muhammad Kalim,3 Ihsan-Ud-Din,4 Sughra Tasneem,6 Abbas Ali Abid,1 Aneela Rohi2

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Objective: Rivers and streams are less studied area with respect to its microbial ecology. This study was conducted to isolate, physiochemical characterized and analyzed phylogenetically bacteria of River Swat, Pakistan and to investigate the antibiotic sensitivity of these isolates.
Methods: Total 65 water samples were collected from five different sites, named Charbagh, FizaGatt, Kaladeer, Barikot and Khaiali in Charsadda, Pakistan. Water samples were taken from shore, middle and from the mud of the river in each site. The bacteria were identified by biochemical tests and confirmed at species level by PCR. Resistance to various antibiotics was determined by disk diffusion method. 
Results: Total of 23 bacterial isolates was isolated, of which 18 isolates were found as Gram-negative rods. Most of the isolates grown at pH range 5-9 and grow best at salt concentration ranges from 0-5%. Maximum growth was observed at 35°C. The isolates exhibited different levels of resistance to various antibiotics, with the highest resistance (95.54%) to Ampicillin. In addition the least percentage of the isolates (31.81%) showed resistance to Ciprofloxacin and for rest of the antibiotics, no significant difference in resistance reaction was observed. The highest number of bacterial isolates (31.81%) showed an intermediate reaction against Ciprofloxacin The 16S rRNA gene sequencing analysis showed the phylogenetic relationship among bacterial isolates of river Swat at different sites. 
Conclusion: The presence of antibiotic-resistant isolates in river water may cause water-borne diseases. The isolates have a great biotechnological importance and need further exploration.


river swat, waterborne bacterial diseases, antibiotic resistance, phylogenetic analysis, microbiology