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Sero-epidemiological assessment of toxoplasmosis among antenatal attendees of university of Port Harcourt teaching hospital, rivers state, Nigeria


MOJ Public Health
OBI Theresa Ijeoma,1 WOKEM Gloria Ngozika,2 AMALA Smart Enoch2

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Abstract

Toxoplasmosis is a disease that can infect pregnant mothers and women of child bearing age and is transmitted to the unborn baby. The sero-prevalence of toxoplasmosis with its associated risk factors in two hundred and seventy-seven pregnant subjects attending University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital was investigated to ascertain the current sero-prevalence status of toxoplasmosis in River State. Blood samples were collected from the subjects through a veno-puncture and the blood tests were performed using the rapid test kits for Toxoplasma gondii IgG and IgM antibodies following manufactures instructions. Commercial pregnancy test kits and HIV test kits were used to confirm their pregnancy and HIV status. Out of the 277 pregnant subjects examined, the overall prevalence was 1.8% (5/277) positive for T. gondii IgG antibody and 6.9% (19/277) positive for HIV. None of the HIV pregnant subjects were positive for toxoplasmosis. All data were presented in frequency and percentages. The chi-square analysis was used to assess the distribution of toxoplasmosis and other variables. All the analysis was done with the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 25 and a p-value of less than 0.05 was considered significant. The age group of 20 -29 years and 30-39 years had the highest sero- prevalence rates of 3(60%) and 2(40%) respectively for IgG while age group 40-49 years recorded no sero-prevalence. Exposure related sero-prevalence showed that eating of raw vegetables, undercooked meat, and exposure to contaminated soil through farming were more sensitive risk factors associated with toxoplasmosis than others. There was no statistical significance using cat as pets at P>0.05. A Statistical significance difference of toxoplasmosis was higher among the subjects that ate raw vegetables and drank contaminated water (P<0.05) compared to those who ate cooked vegetables and drank treated water. The need for health campaign to enlighten the society and pregnant mothers on the dangers of acquiring toxoplasmosis and how to avoid it is advocated. 

Keywords

Toxoplasma gondii, toxo-IgG, toxo-IgM, pregnancy, sero-prevalence, Nigeria

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