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Relationship of posture, working distance and luminance with myopia among male population of religious rural schools of Pakistan

Advances in Ophthalmology & Visual System
Sidra Iqbal,1 Shamim Akhtar,1 Mariam Aslam,1 Fatima Iqbal,2 Aamir Ali Chaudhary3

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Purpose: Aim of this study was to correlate head posture, working distance and luminance with Myopia. 
Methods: 300 myopic aged 7 to 18 years (mean 13.5 years) without spectacles male students were included. The subjects under study were analysed through comprehensive examination (visual acuity, objective and subjective refraction). They were asked to recite Holy Book for ten minutes; a random picture was clicked and posture was measured by drawing neck angle at the picture. Their habitual maximum and minimum working distance was measured when student move backward and forward. Luminance level was recorded of each student at place where he used to study.
Results: Results of this study showed a negative correlation between myopia and posture reading ([95% CI] RE r= -0.07, p = 0.228, LE r= -0.079, p = 0.173) that depicts if angle decreases then myopia increases. A downhill and significant correlation was found between luminance level and myopia ([95% CI] RE r= -0.700, p = 0.000, LE -0.693, p = 0.000); as the lux (luminance) gets reduced the spherical equivalent gets increased and vice versa. There is a negative correlation between spherical equivalent and minimum working distance ([95% CI] RE r= -0.612, p = 0.000, LE r= -0.588, p = 0.000). A negative correlation between myopia and maximum working distance was found ([95% CI] RE r= -0.634, p = 0.000, LE r= -0.604, p = 0.000). 
Conclusion: We concluded that variable working distance, adoption of abnormal head posture and low luminance in Religious Schools has noteworthy association with myopia. Eye care professionals should play their vital role to enlighten the community that while performing near tasks all these risk factors should be avoided to halt the progression of myopia.


luminance, myopia, objective refraction, reid’s line, subjective refraction, working distance