Background on the control of the cattle tick R. (B.) microplus and the use of coumarin substances as an alternative
- Pharmacy & Pharmacology International Journal
Carlos-Eduardo Rodríguez-Molano,1 Sergio Ulloa Torres,2 Laura-Estefanía Niño Monrroy2
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Rhicephalus (Boophilus) microplus (R. (B.) microplus) is a hematophagous ectoparasite of Indo-Asian origin that is found in tropical and subtropical regions, which has expanded its geographical distribution as a result of climate change, migrating to northern latitudes and higher altitudes. This species creates estimated economic losses between $13.9 and 18.7 million dollars per year, generating direct and indirect effects on livestock such as low productivity and production rates, decreased reproduction, and even death through the transmission of diseases associated with this species, including diseases known as TBD (tick borne diseases), which are a public health problem in countries with high rates of occurrence, such as the United States, the United Kingdom, Russia, France, Australia and Brazil. The chemical control of cattle ticks began in 1895 with the use of arsenic baths that reduced infestation of this species in herds in Australia. Today, many formulations and techniques have been developed to control of this species; however, malpractice, underdosing and/ or overuse of these substances have allowed this species to develop different types of resistance, which have documented worldwide. Countries with a high number of resistance reports include Mexico, Brazil and Australia. These factors serve as a starting point for research that seeks to provide economically and environmentally viable alternatives for the control of cattle ticks, which make use of different types of plant extracts obtained from many species. As a result, high control rates at different stages of this species using various compounds with a less harmful effect on the environment have been achieved, such as with coumarins, which are obtained from chemical reactions using methodologies designed with the concept of green chemistry. This paper sought to provide an overview and approximation of the traditional control of R. (B.) microplus and control alternatives that use coumarin compounds.
coumarins, control, resistance, acaricides, vector, environmentally viable alternatives