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The effectiveness of the 11+ at improving sport performance metrics: a systematic review

International Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation Journal
Matthew Wentzell,1,2,3 Gerry Ramogida,1Amy Schneeberg,4,5 Allison Ezzat4,5


Objective: To conduct a systematic review of the short- and long-term effects of the 11+ warm-up on performance metrics (PMs) in soccer players.

Methods: Eligible studies were written in English; tested adolescent/young adult competitive soccer players; and included same-group pre- and post-test data on 11+-related PMs.

Results: 20 articles met the inclusion criteria. Synthesis found evidence that long-term 11+ exposure resulted in improvements in ham

string strength-related measures; some evidence for improved agility, jump height, static and dynamic balance; limited or conflicting evidence for speed and quadriceps strength; insufficient evidence for dynamic control ratio and kicking skill/accuracy; no evidence for motor control. PM improvements following a single 11+ exposure was limited/conflicting.

Conclusion: Long-term exposure to the 11+ improved hamstring strength. Given the heterogeneous nature of the studies, further research is warranted to understand the programs' effects on PMs in different populations, with consideration of program dosage and athlete's baseline skill.


warm-up exercise, soccer, training, plyometric exercises, soccer players, comprehensive examination, physical performance, comprehensive group, national, amateur, varsity, club, muscle testing, eccentric hamstring, peak torque production, strength measurement, agility performance