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Fruit orchards under climate change conditions: adaptation strategies and management


Under global warming and climate change conditions fruit orchards facing different environmental challenges which cause negative impacts on the growth and productivity of various fruit trees particularly in arid and semi-arid areas, various abiotic stress such as rising temperature, drought, heatwaves, and soil salinity represented a major challenge for growth and productivity of fruit orchards. Fruit trees used different strategies to cope with abiotic stress and minimize their adverse effects. Plants used different physiological, anatomical, and morphological mechanisms to tolerate abiotic stress, such as ion homeostasis, synthesis of more compatible solute, polyamines production, antioxidant regulation, closing stomata, in addition tol modification of root system, abscission of the leaves partially, compactness canopy, reducing leaf size, furthermore, under abiotic stress plants produce various organic solutes to cope with Reactive Oxygen solutes like Proline, in addition, using proper management practices that include providing adequate nutrients requirement particularly Potassium and Calcium, maintain soil moisture, using proper rootstocks tolerant for drought and salinity stress as well as exogenous application of plant growth substances could sustain orchards growth and productivity.


abiotic stress, climate change, fruit orchards, physiological mechanism