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Determination of effective seismic wave velocities using time gradients obtained from response and CDP reflection hodographs

Aeronautics and Aerospace Open Access Journal
Akhmedov TR, Turehan Yimear 

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Seismic wave velocities, including effective velocities, play a critical role in the kinematic processing and interpretation of 2D and 3D seismic data. Along with other parameters of elastic waves, the geological efficiency of seismic exploration also depends on the level of knowledge of the velocity model of the medium, on the accuracy of information about velocities. The article briefly lists the main methods for determining the effective velocities according to the seismic wave field, developed and applied in the practice of seismic research. The methods used to determine the effective velocities of reflected waves can be divided into two groups: methods for determining the effective velocities based on automatic or visual tracking of the in-phase axes (i.e. hodographs) of reflected waves on seismic records, then their approximation by hyperbolas constitute the first group, and the second the group consists of methods based on the application of the analysis of the seismic wave field in controlled directions on the seismograms of a common depth point (CDP). Each proposed method for determining effective speeds has advantages and disadvantages. The article focuses on the industrial method, widely used at present, based on the analysis of the wave field in controlled directions, which do not provide sufficient information to solve the main problems of kinematic interpretation. The main disadvantages of the existing methods are indicated. The article describes a new method for determining the effective velocity, which is fundamentally different from the methods that are still used in the practice of seismic exploration. The fact is that in this method, seismic survey data of single and multiple profiling are not used separately, as it was in the methods used in seismic survey practice so far, but together. Formulas have been derived for determining the effective velocity based on the time gradients of the travel time curves of the CSP and CDP of reflected waves, which makes it possible to determine the speeds even from incomplete travel time curves. A technique for determining the effective speed has been developed and a sequence of procedures has been determined for solving the problem. The results of research are given on a specific example by solving the direct and inverse problems for the Sazhdag area between the Kura and Gabyrra rivers. The influence of errors in the values of the parameters included in the formula for calculating the effective speed on the final results is studied. At the end of the article, the main advantages of the proposed method are indicated.


2D and 3D seismic, effective velocity, common depth point velocity, time increments, seismic time sections