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Typhoid fever: prevalence and risk factors among symptomatic Sudanese patients

Journal of Bacteriology & Mycology: Open Access
Abdelwahid Ali Abdelwahid Mohamed,Mohammed Ahmed Ibrahim Ahmed,Gwahir Ebrahim Osman IbnIdriss,Abdalla MusaHusein,Abdirahman Abdikani Abdirahman,Mohamud Abdulkadir Ali,Nahla Ahmed Mohammed Abdelrahman,Sohep Abdalla Osman,Isam Eldeen Eltayeb Osman Ali7


Background: Typhoid fever is still a major public health issue in Sudan, notably in communities with limited healthcare systems, with an uneducated population that lives in unhygienic environments, and with residents who habitually drink unsafe water from tube wells rather than washing their hands after using the restroom.
Objective: To clarify the prevalence and risk factors for typhoid fever among those who are symptomatic and consult the Omar Bin Al-Khattab Health Center, the current study was performed.
Methods:To clarify the incidence and predisposing factors of typhoid fever among patients presenting at Omar Bin Al Kattab Health Center, a retrospective analytical study was performed in 2022. From each level, 50 respondents in total were selected randomly. The tool for gathering information was an open-ended questionnaire included personal data as well as risk factors. History of typhoid fever was confirmed by detection of antibodies of S. typhi by using ICT for enteric fever (ICT INTERNATIONAL ,South Africa, with sensitivity: 86.7%,specificity: 99.7%, and accuracy: 99.0% ) ,and S. paratyphiwere not detected .The statistical program for the social sciences (SPSS), version 16, was used to describe and interpret the study's statistics. With the use of an anonymous research tool, respondent confidentiality was secured. Informed consent was obtained from the patients by making voluntary contact with them via their registered phone numbers. The gathered information was only intended to further the priorities of the research.
Results:The plurality of study participants (66%) were between the ages of 21 and 40, and 54% (27) were undergraduates. 58% of participants have experienced typhoid (S. typhi), and 90% of interviewees were knowledgeable of the infection. In accordance with the allocation of participants based on the mode of transmission, food and drink account for 74% of all participants, making them more fundamental precepts of typhoid fever transmission. Summer was the most common season for typhoid (64%), and 52% of participants had fever as a distinct feature. 42 % of respondents claimed that the water supply was healthy. The food is heated before meals by 50% of participants, prepared at home by 40% of respondents, and purchased ready-to-eat by 18% of informants. Furthermore, 34% of people use heating to kill microbes, with vaccination being the least effective approach.
Conclusion: The study revealed that the total prevalence of typhoid fever in the group studied was 58%, and knowledge, awareness, healthy and well-prepared food, as well as water supply, are significant risk factors.


typhoid fever, Salmonella, khartoum, Sudan