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Effect of acid media on seed germination performance of Swiss-chard (Beta vulgarise L.)

Horticulture International Journal
Birhanu Tsegaye Sisay, Habtam Fentaye

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Objectives: An experiment was designed with the objectives of studying the effect of acidity (pH) on the seed germination performance of Swiss-chard, and to determine the optimal pH level for the highest seed germination. Methods: The study was carried out in the laboratory of the Department of Horticulture of the University of Wolkite. The treatments were different pH levels (2, 4, 6 and 7) obtained from solutions of citric acid and distilled water in different concentration mixtures. The CRD design was used with three replicates. Findings: Analysis of variance (ANOVA) showed that all recorded germination parameters (germination rate, mean germination time, germination speed and germination index) were all most significantly different (p<0.001) for different pH levels. The highest seed germination rates (85.33% and 81.33%) were recorded at pH 7 and pH 6 respectively. Similarly the highest mean germination time (13 days and 11 days) and the highest germination speed (3.88/day and 3.7/day) were recorded at pH 6 and pH 7, respectively. However, the lowest seed germination rate (4%), the lowest mean germination time (0.5 days) and the lowest seed germination speed (0.18/day) at pH 2. The highest germination index (100 and 95.42) was recorded at pH 7 and pH 6 respectively while the lowest seed germination index (4.61) was recorded at pH 2. In general pH 7 and pH 6 can give the best results to the highest germination yield of Swiss chard.


Swiss chard, pH, germination percent, mean germination time, germination index