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Contribution of the immune response to stroke provides promising directions for future stroke immunotherapies


In the entire world, stroke is a significant source of morbidity and mortality. Tissueplasminogen activator is the sole FDA-approved drug for the treatment of acuteischemic stroke at the moment. Despite the intensive search for new treatments,hundredsofdrugstargetingvariouspathophysiologicalprocesseshavefailedclinical trials. The pathogenesis of risk factors, neurotoxicity, tissue remodelling,and healing are all stages of stroke that are impacted by the immune system. Thebrainandimmunesystemcommunicateinbothdirections,andinfectionfollowinga stroke is the main cause of patient mortality due to the immunosuppression itcauses. While clinical sequelae like dementia may now potentially be described interms of immunity, more recent research also suggests that the gut microbiotaplays a role in the immunological response to stroke. Despite research indicatingbothharmfulandpositiveactions,thepreciserolesofinnateandadaptive componentsarestillnotwellunderstood.Ifimmunityandinflammationareneuroprotectiveorneurotoxic,timeisacriticalfactorindeterminingthis.Inaddition, it is evident that many suggested treatments are influenced by the localinflammatoryenvironment.Themostpromisingpotentialstrokeimmunotherapiesare highlighted here as this review dissects the various elements of the immuneresponsetostroke.


stroke, immune response, acute ischemic stroke, immunotherapy, microbiota