Rhesus (Rh) blood group antigens in multiparous women attending antenatal clinic in tertiary hospital, port harcourt, Nigeria
- Hematology & Transfusion International Journal
Ransom Baribefii Jacob,1 Eboh Covenant,1 Sorgah,1 Dorka ThankGod,2 Moore-Igwe Beatrice1
The routine blood screening test carried out for pregnant women attending antenatal clinic in Tertiary Hospital Port Harcourt, Nigeria especially with regards to blood group system is limited to ABO/Rh D antigen screening. This cross-sectional, hospital-based study was aimed at determining the prevalence of the Rh C, c, E and e blood group antigens in multiparous women attending antenatal clinic in Tertiary Hospital Port Harcourt, Nigeria. A total of one hundred and twenty (120) pregnant females within the age range of 18-40years were recruited randomly into the study between February-June, 2022. Blood samples were aseptically collected by venipuncture into EDTA sample bottle; Rh C, c, E and e blood group antigens were assay for using microwell agglutination technique. Data generated was statistically analyzed by simple percentage calculation and defining the percentage frequency of Rh antigens. Results obtained showed the percentage distribution of 17.5% for Rh C, 89.2% for Rh c, 39.2% for Rh E and 90.8% for Rh-e. Percentage distribution of Rh antigens amongst studied population based on parity showed that G3P2 group had the highest percentage positivity of 8(6.7%) for Rh-C antigen while those carrying their first pregnancy (prime) had the highest percentage positivity of 33(27.5%), 15(12.5%) and 36(30.0%) for Rh-c, Rh-E and Rh-e respectively. Distribution of Rh antigens with respect to previous transfusion history in studied participants showed 6 (5.0%), 15 (12.5%), 6 (5.0%) and 17 (14.2%) percentage positivity for Rh-C, Rh-c, Rh-E and Rh-e respectively. This study revealed a percentage positivity of 17.5%, 89.2%, 39.2 % and 90.8% for Rh-C, Rhc, Rh-E and Rh-e respectively with high percentage expression for Rh-c, E and e antigens found on the red cells of Antennal Women carrying their first pregnancy. Furthermore, there is a high percentage expression of Rh antigens in previously transfused pregnant women in this study. Although routine phenotyping of these blood group antigens will be a financial burden in a resource limited country like Nigeria. It is expedient and needful to take into cognizance the fact that the presence of Rh C, c, E and e antigens may likely be the cause of some delayed transfusion reactions and haemolytic disease of the foetus and new born. Therefore, there is need for the inclusion of Rh C, c, E and e in routine antigen typing for pregnant women in other to help ameliorate red blood cell alloimmunization and delayed haemolytic transfusion reaction during pregnancy. Furthermore, there is need to promulgate policies that promote the optimum stocking of Rh-e, c antigen negative blood in blood banks in the area for emergency use.
rhesus (Rh) antigens, multiparous women, parity, alloimmunization