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Biocomposites composed of cartilage and natural rubber latex


We have successfully fabricated the cartilage/natural rubber latex (NRL) biocomposites via human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) spheroid under hypoxic condition. It was revealed that NRL nanoparticles acted as the main component, providing surface heterogeneity for the spheroids and resulting in a mechanically stable structure with a modulus two times higher compared to controls. The formation of the cartilage/NRL nanoparticles biocomposite results in having a stiff property was demonstrated. The gene expression levels of SRY-box 9 (SOX9), aggrecan and type II collagen (Col-II), and formation of glycosaminoglycan’s were higher in spheroids under hypoxic conditions, and administration of NRL nanoparticles enhanced chondrogenic differentiation is successfully induced. The promise of NRL nanoparticles for well-controlled chondrogenic differentiation and mechanically stable cartilage tissue was demonstrated.


natural rubber latex, hMSC, biocomposites, chondrogenesis, spheroid, mechanical properties, normoxia