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Deviations of exterior characters from breeding standards of chicken – part II: miniature and ornamental breeds


International Journal of Avian & Wildlife Biology
Zuzana Lacková,1 Ivana Baranová,1 František Zigo,1 Šimon Halás,1 Zuzana Farkašová,1 Juliana Arvaiová,1 Ibrahim F Rehan2,3

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Abstract

The work is aimed at evaluating exterior features, advantages and shortcomings in comparison with breeding standards in 5 breeds of ornamental and diminutive poultry. A total of 296 individuals of the Brahma Bantam (BB), Silkie Chicken (SE), Pekin Bantam (PB), Orpington Bantam (OP) and Sultan Chicken (SL) breeds, were evaluated at 9 exhibitions in 5 positions according to a valid Standards. Most exterior deficiencies were recorded in the top three positions. In the first position – Breeding and sexual expression, the most common mistakes were lower weight (BB 34.5 %, and SL 26.5 %), too long torso (BB 37.1 %, and OB 31.3 %) as well as higher weight in SE (34.1 %). In the second position – Head, the most shortcomings were noted in the BB, and SE breeds, these were mainly non-standard feathering of the facial part in BB (30.2 %), non-standard shape of the comb in BB (25.9 %), and SE (19.3 %) as well as the overall formation of the head in the SE (23.9 %). In the third position - Body shape, deficiencies were noted in OB (31.3 %), PB (26.9 %), and the most deficiencies in tail plumage were in OB (23.7 %), and SE (22.7 %) as well as atypical torso shape in BB (24.1 %) and SE (22.7 %). Within these three positions, individuals with knockout defects also appeared, but this was only an isolated occurrence. In the fourth position - Feathers, it was mainly an uneven distribution of colour on the flight feathers at SE (17.1 %), and OB (21.9 %) and sparse plumage at PB (15.4 %), OB (15.6 %), and SL (14.7 %). For the fifth position - Readiness for the exhibition, care of the breeder, it was a lack of preparation and dirty feathers at BB (1.7 %) and SL (5.2 %). The most serious deficiencies of the breed traits were found in 1st and 3rd position, which has a major impact on their further breeding value or culling. As part of the selection of the most suitable representatives of the breed with an assessment of their exterior at exhibitions, it is possible to create a breeding with the highest quality exterior signs with the appropriate performance. The data obtained from poultry valuation cards show that the assessment of poultry is one of the important criteria for their introduction into the holding and further reproduction in order to eliminate individuals with morphological deviations from the breeding standard, who can pass on these defects to future generations.

Keywords

chicken, standard, exterior, body weight, Silkie Chicken, Bantam

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