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Future approaches for Brucellosis vaccines and therapies development based on molecular host-pathogen interaction


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Abstract

This review discusses Brucella-host interactions on molecular base and brucellosis immunobiological response. Also, the review handles pathogenesis-informed rationales to prevent or treat brucellosis. Brucella species is an animal pathogen that may cause incidental human brucellosis as a zoonotic disease. Brucellosis results in worldwide economic losses, human morbidity, and poverty. Despite Brucella species infect humans as an incidental host, 500,000 new human brucellosis occur annually, and no approved human vaccines or patient-friendly therapies are available. Brucella has strong tissue tropism for lymphoreticular and reproductive systems with an intracellular lifestyle that hinders its exposure to innate and adaptive immune responses, sequesters the pathogen from antibiotics effect and drives clinical disease manifestations and pathology. Stealthy brucellae exploit strategies to establish infection, including i) evasion of intracellular destruction by restricting fusion of type IV secretion system(T4SS) dependent Brucella-containing vacuoles with lysosomal compartments, ii) inhibition of apoptosis of infected mononuclearcells, and iii) prevention of DC maturation, antigenpresentation,andactivationofnaiveTcells,pathogenesislessonsthatmay be informative for other intracellular pathogens. Data sets of NGS of Brucella and host time-series global expression fused with proteomics and metabolomics data from in vitro and in vivo experiments now approved human vaccines inform interactive cellular pathways and gene regulatory networks enabling full-scale systems biology analysis. The newly identified effector proteins of Brucella may represent novel targets for safer and more effective brucellosis vaccines and treatment.

Keywords

Brucella-host, in vivo, immunobiology, dendritic cells, epithelium, Toll-like receptors, brucella-containing vacuole, replicative niche

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