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Clinical conditions and risk factors, in predicting risk of Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV)-ALRTIs in children


Journal of Human Virology & Retrovirology
Oluwadamilare Afolabi Obe,1 Abimbola Amoo

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Abstract

Background: Acute Lower Respiratory Tract Infections (ALRTIs) are an important cause of morbidity and mortality in infant and young children in Africa. The World Health Organization (WHO) in 2015 reported that about four million children aged less than five years die annually and 1.9 million of these deaths result from complications of ALRTIs, mainly pneumonia. This study therefore aims to investigate prevalence of Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV) infection and the associated risk factors of ALRTI among under-five children in Lagos, South-West Nigeria.
Methods: This is a cross-sectional study among 200 children in Lagos, South-West Nigeria, with Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV) infection using Reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR). A structured questionnaire was self-administered to collect attributes that might directly or indirectly associate with the risks of acquisition of RSV infection. Data was analyzed by both descriptive and inferential statistics using SPSS.
Results: A total of 200 participants were cruited, Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV) infection was detected in Forty-five (22.5%) using Reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR). Acute lower respiration tract infections (ALRTIs) were most predominant in age group 25-60 months (35%). One hundred eight (64%) had pneumonia while 72 (36%) had bronchiolitis. Furthermore, exclusive breastfeeding, family history of atopy, history of nasal instrumentation and attended creche were significant risk factors for RSV-ALRTIs.
Conclusion: Infants with a family history of atopy are at increased risk of severe RSV infection, and longer hospital stay. Also, there was a significant association between RSV infection and History of nasal instrumentation as well as not been exclusively breastfed.

Keywords

respiratory tract infection; respiratory syncytial virus; bronchiolitis; pneumonia.

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