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A case of idiopathic granulomatous mastitis that canmimic a breast cancer


Obstetrics & Gynecology International Journal
Soukaina Cherradi,1 Mohamed Hamid,2 Mariam Mahtate,1 Amina lakhdar,1 Najia Zeraidi,1 Aziz Baidada1

Abstract

Introduction: Idiopathic granulomatous mastitis (IGM) is an uncommon and persistent inflammatory breast disease with no identified cause. It affects women of reproductive age who have previously breastfed. Diagnosis of IGM is difficult because clinical and radiological features might mimic breast cancer. We report an unusual case of IGM in a breastfeeding mother mimicking breast cancer.
Observation: A 32-year-old female patient, with no particular pathological history, has been presenting for 3 months mass of the right breast with erythema. A few weeks later, she presented a suppuration and ulceration of the right breast. The breast examination revealed a painless and poorly marginated mass, mobile in relation to the muscle plane and adherent to the skin at the junction of the external quadrants measuring 40*40mm. Breast ultrasound showed a heterogeneous hypoechoic irregular mass in the outer quadrants with surrounding edema, and dilatation of the milk ducts, classified as BI-RADS 4. Histologically, there was an epithelioid and gigantocellular granulomatous reaction of the mammary parenchyma, with a polymorphic inflammatory infiltrating of lymphocytes, plasma cells, and neutrophils. The patient received corticosteroids, bromocriptine, amoxicillin and clavulanic acid associated with topical care of the lesion. The evolution was favorable with the regression of the mass after 18 months.
Discussion: IGM is an uncommon and benign condition that is frequently misdiagnosed. It mostly occurs in young women during the genital period. IGM does not have any pathognomonic mammographic characteristics. Breast ultrasound can show a nodular hypoechoic image with irregular contours with a long axis parallel to the skin. IGM is characterized by lobulocentric non-caseating granulomas made up of epithelioid histiocytes mixed with Langhan's multinucleate giant cells on histological examination. The treatment of IGM is not well established. The management of the disease is based on its clinical form. IGM is a gradual and recurrent disease that has a major impact on the quality of life and requires close surveillance.
Conclusion: IGM is an uncommon and persistent inflammatory disorder of the breast that can be difficult to diagnose. Breast cancer is the predominant differential diagnosis, with the possibility of an association. Increased awareness of this disorder will lead to more accurate and timely diagnosis and treatment.

Keywords

idiopathic granulomatous mastitis, breast mass, breast ultrasound, breast cancer, inflammatory breast disease

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