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Risk factors for surgical site infection: challenges to public health


Journal of Microbiology & Experimentation
Elaine Tamires da Mata Silva,1 Dayane Otero Rodrigues2

Abstract

Surgical site infections are healthcare-related infections that succeeds post-surgical procedures in patients, associated with risk factors. Patients admitted in, healthcare facilities and medical institutions are vulnarable to these hospital associated due to lack of suitable infrastructure and hygiene protocols. The objective was to present the etiology and risk factors associated with the onset of surgical site infection, pointing out a critical view of the challenges and appropriate measures for its prevention in the country. The information was collected from various selective articles published between 2009 to 2020 indexed in databases, seeking to identify the etiology of surgical site infections and associated risk factors, followed by tabulating the data. Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae were among the most common perperators responsible for the development of hospital acquired clinical manifestation following a surgical procedure. Smoking, comorbidities, and the patient’s advanced age, were other associated risk factors that were known to aggravate the clinical condition. The length of stay, type of surgery, and the use of invasive procedures were some extrinsic factors. The study revealed the role of bacteria from human microbiota of hospital origin as the main etiological agents of surgical site infections. It also addressed the need for reflection and adherence to measures to prevent and control this type of infection, and the imminent need for the development of National Programs for the Control of Hospital Infections in hospitals, qualifying multidisciplinary teams to face these challenges to public health

Keywords

nosocomial infection, surgical site infection, risk factors, prevention

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