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Pattern of hematological disorders on bone marrow examination: a tertiary care hospital experience


Hematology & Transfusion International Journal
Noorulain Fareed, Tariq Mehmood, M. Saeed Quraishy, Ghulam Fatima

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Abstract

Background: Hematological disorders are quite frequent in all age group. Most of these hematological disorders first present as anemia. Bone Marrow Aspiration plays a major role in the diagnosis of it’s underlying cause. The aim of this study was to analyze the causes of hematological disorders, its spectrum and to interpret the bone marrow aspiration findings. Objective: The aim of the study is to evaluate the clinical profile, spectrum, cytological and histological pattern of various hematological disorders reported in bone marrow aspiration and trephine biopsy respectively. Study design: This was a Retrospective and prospective study. This study was carried out in the Haematology Department of CHK-Central Laboratory from July 2017 to August 2019. Methodology: Bone marrow examination of 280 cases of suspected hematological disorders was carried out, who presented to CHK-Central Laboratory for bone marrow Biopsy. Complete detailed history, examination and complete blood counts were recorded. Results: Among 280 cases studied, age of patients ranged from 02 to 75 years with mean age of 38.5 years with male predominance (1.4:1). Most of the patients presented with fever, easy fatigability and generalized weakness. Out of 280 cases of bone marrow biopsy 57 ( 20.3% ) cases showed normal haematopoiesis, while Erythroid Hyperplasia was observed in 10(3.5%) cases and Megaloblastic Anaemia in 05(1.7%) cases. ITP in 15 (5.3%), Hypocellular marrow in 19 (6.7%), Aplastic Anaemia in 24(8.5%) cases. Acute leukemia was seen in 46 cases with 23 (8.2%) cases of ALL and 12(4.2%) cases of AML. CML was seen in 37(13.2%), MPN in 10(3.5)% cases, LPD in 23 (8.2%) cases, Multiple myeloma in 02(0.7%). 01 case (0.3%) of granulomatous pathology and 01 case (0.3%) of Myelodysplastic syndrome were diagnosed exclusively on bone marrow biopsy. Leishmaniasis seen in 1 0.3(%) patient. In addition metastatic deposits of adenocarcinoma were observed in 2(0.7%) cases. Conclusion: The present study showed the usefulness of bone marrow aspiration and trephine biopsy in evaluation of the bone marrow in routine haematological disorders and also for understanding disease progression.

Keywords

leukemia, haematological disorders, bone marrow biopsy

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