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Spatial change detections and inventory of wetlands in Yenagoa Urban Area: Bayelsa State, Nigeria


MOJ Ecology & Environmental Sciences
Elemuwa IC,1 Lawrence Hart,2 Eze Promise I3

Abstract

Yenegoa Town has in recent years witnessed rapid City growth and Urban development and much of these developments are unplanned and unregulated. This has seriously impacted on wetlands in several locations of the town as persistent Wetlands reclamations are being witnessed in study area. This prompted the need for the study which is aimed to map wetlands location in Yenagoa’s urban area using GIS and Remote Sensing approach. The study analyzes land use/land cover changes (LULC) using LANDSAT(5) TM, LANDSAT(5) ETM and LANDSAT(7) OLI satellite imageries of 1990, 2000, 2010 and 2020 respectively. Through this study, the pattern of urban expansion for Thirty years were been studied. The satellite imageries covering the area were acquired and analyzed using ArcGIS 10.1 and ENVI 5.0 software. The supervised image classification method was adopted and the classification results were validated using the Kappa Index of Agreement (KIA) yielding an accuracy of 0.69m for year 1990, 0.62m for year 2000, 0.58m for year 2010 and 0.73m for 2020. A total area of 13,741.4 hectares was delineated in the study area which is identified as Yenagoa’s urban area. After processing the imageries, four land use/land cover (LULC) classes where considered, and the results shows that Built-up area continuously increased in land area from 1990 -2020 with total percentage change of 273.31% (4,178.7ha) and total annual rate of change of 25.33. Vegetation have total percentage change of 38.55% (974.34Ha) and total annual rate of change of 3.85, wetland cover loss with total percentage Change of 61.96% (-51,44.99ha) and total annual rate of change of -6.19ha, and the water body have loss of total percentage of -2.16% (-8.05Ha) and total annual rate of change of -0.22ha wetland at Yenegwe loss by Total %change of -29.918% ( -197.95ha), and wetland at Igbogene loss by total percentage change of -36.028% (-358.7ha). The research findings also revealed that the wetlands in Anyama, Swali, Kpansia and Opolo Towns were completely lost from the third Epoch of 2010, this may be as a result of persistence reclamation of wetland in this parts of the study area. The Markov Chain predicted model were utilized for predicting the likely changes in land use land cover for a period of thirty years. The predicted results also indicates that wetland size of 32.47,%, 30.68% and 28.99% may likely be lost by the year 2030, 2040 and 2050 respectively in study area if no action is taking by concerned authorities to forestall the factors responsible for the lost in wetland. The study justified the dynamics of remote sensing and GIS techniques in modeling wetlands changees over these periods, wise use of wetland resources and improvement of institutional arrangement were recommended so that wetland policies can be fully integrated into the planning process across all disciplines.

Keywords

spatial, wetlands, ecosystem, urbanization, inventory

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