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Spatial modelling of urban heat islands and its planning implications in Obio/Akpor local government area


International Journal of Hydrology
Lawson Nwidum,1 Kurotamuno Peace Jackson,1 Ibama Brown2

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Abstract

Urban Heat Island (UHI) has become a global recurring phenomenon in most urban centres. Obio/Akpor Local Government Area has had a fair share of this phenomenon owing to its thriving trend in both planned and unplanned urbanisations. The study looks at the impact of UHI in selected communities in Obio/Akpor Local Government in five epochs of 2000, 2005, 2010, 2015 and 2020. Parts of the objectives include identifying the UHI in these communities in the Local Government Area, modelling of UHI in selected communities in Obio/Akpor Local Government Area and determining the trend in UHI using Epoch data of Urban Surface Temperature from LANDSAT thermal imageries Figure 1. The study adopted Thermal Infrared Remote (TIR) Sensing and Geospatial Information System (GIS) Techniques using LANDSAT TM, LANDSAT ETM and LANDSAT OLI sensors to acquire Urban Surface temperature data emitted by objects in the study area and store the information as a digital number (DN) thermal band (B6, B61 and B10) as well as secondary data acquired from the Nigerian Meteorological Agency (NIMET). Urban Surface Temperature was obtained through the following processes: Acquisition of Urban Surface Temperature value of the study area in form of DN, the conversion of DN to Spectral radiance using the Spectral radiance equation. The data were processed, analysed, and modelled using ESRI’s ArcGIS 10.1. The results revealed that in 2000, the Average Urban Temperature of the study area was 23.480°C, the value increase to 27.647°C in 2005 with a difference of 4.167°C. The temperature of 2005 increased to 31.598°C in 2010 with a difference in temperature of 3.951°C. Accordingly, the temperature of 2010 increased to 33.054°C in 2015 with a temperature difference of 1.456°C and temperature of 2015 increased to 33.070°C with a difference of 0.016°C. The analysis shows an increasing trend of 40% in the Urban Surface Temperature in the study area in the various years under investigation. The study recommends that development should be extended to other Local Government Areas in the state to reduce rural-urban migration to Obio/Akpor Local Government. Tree planting should be encouraged as a way of mitigating the effect of air pollution, heatwaves and harmful gases emitted into the environment by combust engines and gas flaring, the use of combustion engines be replaced by electric cars to reduce the level of carbon dioxide (CO2 ) emitted ti environment. Policymakers to restrict unplanned urban growth and to increase tree planting in the built-up areas.

Keywords

spatial modelling, thermal infrared, planning, urban heat island and urbanisation

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