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Prevalence of cutaneous leishmaniasis in patients admitted to the Labcore computer system of the clinical laboratory of Dr. Tomás Casas Casajús Hospital from January 1, 2015 to December 31, 2019


MOJ Public Health
Ronald Varela Calvo1, 2,3,4,5, 6

Abstract

Leishmaniasis is à disease caused by a protozoan of the genus Leishmania, with biological
cycles in which humans can be a reservoir. It can manifest as visceral or localized cutaneous, which is what occur in Costa Rica. The diagnosis has many techniques, but the most used for speed, price and availability is the direct smear with Giemsa stain in Costa Rica and the HTCC (CCSS), where the amastigote is sought. Objective: to determine rates and prevalence percentages of cutaneous leishmaniasis in the Hospital Dr. Tomás Casas
Casajús de Osa (CCSS) from 2015 to 2019, classified by year, age and sex.
Materials and methods: Data were collected by analyzing the Labcore computer system,
downloading files in TXT text format and converting them to Excel. The analysis is
performed by simple calculations of rates and percentages, and reporting in tables and graphs.
Results: Of the 250 records from 2015 to 2019, 39 are positive for 15.6% and 169 are negative for 67.6%. Of the positives, the prevalence per 100,000 inhabitants per year, 2017 recorded the lowest value with 9.8 and 2019 the highest with 42.0. According to age, those
29 and under are 59% and those 30 and over are 41%. There are no significant differences
in terms of gender, with 44% female and 56% male.
Conclusions: A good diagnosis of cutaneous leishmaniasis should be made. This starts from the physician’s assessment to the report of the result. The laboratory technique must be good, from sample collection to microscopic analysis, and there must be traceability. This favors the patient for a good treatment and avoids new infections. Cutaneous leishmaniasis infection does not have age and sex patterns; It will depend on the environnent and human behavior, in work and recreational activities and in the place of residence.

Keywords

leishmaniasis, vector, cutaneous, diagnosis, epidemiological, Giemsa, incidence, hospital Dr. Tomáscasas, amastigotes

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