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Hypertension self-management and antihypertensive prevalence amid patients in Saudi Arabia via knowledge, attitude, and practice assessment


Abstract

Background: Diagnosed cases with hypertension (HT) are elevating worldwide and in Saudi Arabia (SA). HT self-management amid patients is important for controlling the disease and its complications. The aim of this study is to perform an HT KAP evaluation amid patients with HT in SA.
Subjects and methods: This Cross-sectional study was performed between January and April 2021. An administered validated online survey was presented to the patients via the Survey Monkey website-link. Data collectors contacted possible patients in several sites comprising; hospitals, shopping malls, and leisure-centers. The associations amid categorical variables were assessed via the chi-square test application. The Pearson correlation coefficient (r) measured potential correlations between the patients’ KAP and outcome variables.
Results: This study surveyed 410 patients with HT with mean systolic blood pressure (SBP) of 144.1 mmHg ± 15.4 and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) 90.2 mmHg ± 10.2, mean age 56 ± 11 years, range 18–80 years. Generally, 73% of patients showed good HT knowledge and 78% showed good HT attitude, whereas 77% revealed poor HT practice. Significant positive linear correlations were found amid attitude versus (with) knowledge (r= 0.40, P <0.001), practice with knowledge (r= 0.26, P <0.001), practice with attitude (r= 0.26, P <0.001), SBP with DBP (r= 0.57, P <0.001), whereas significant negative linear correlations were found amid SBP with knowledge (r= −0.13, P <0.05), SBP with attitude (r= −0.11, P <0.05), SBP with practice (r= −0.10, P <0.05), DBP with knowledge (r= −0.10, P <0.05), DBP with attitude (r= −0.14, P <0.05), and DBP with practice (r= −0.10, P <0.05). Surprisingly, 59% of patients didn’t administer any prescribed anti-hypertensives.
Conclusion: The patients showed a very good attitude and knowledge regarding HT; however, these were not mirrored in their practice towards HT. Unproper administration of prescribed anti-hypertensive medicines without a proper healthy diet and exercise caused a direct contribution resulted in poor HT practice despite increased HT knowledge and awareness. Consequently, patients are advised to participate in the free HT health education programs provided by the ministry of health (MOH) to increase their knowledge of the importance of drug compliance and applications for improving HT self-management to better manage HT and its complications.

Keywords

hypertension, knowledge, attitude, practice, anti-hypertensive medicines, Saudi Arabia, self-management, blood pressure, complications

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