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A rare case of bilateral optic neuritis and acute disseminated encephalomyelitis post mycoplasma pneumoniae infection


Abstract

A case of a 4-year-old boy who developed acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM) and optic neuritis (ON) following Mycoplasma pneumoniae infection is reported. His symptoms, including excessive sleepiness, frontal headache, bilateral vision impairment, retro-auricular pain and unbalanced gait, were resolved after methylprednisolone pulse therapy, intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) and ciprofloxacin. Cerebrospinal fluid myelin basic protein (MBP) and Mycoplasma serology IgM were detected in our patient. This is the first report of a child with ADEM and ON associated with mastoditis caused by M. pneumoniae infection. Combined immunomodulatory therapy (pulse steroids and immunoglobulin) with anti- mycoplasma microbial therapy resulted in favorable visual recovery. Bilateral isolated optic neuritis as the first presenting feature in childhood ADEM is rare and requires proper evaluation and early therapeutic management. This case highlights the need for physician awareness of the association of mycoplasma infection with optic neuritis and ADEM. 

Keywords

acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (adem), optic neuritis (on), mycoplasma pneumonia, children

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