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Quality evaluation of noodles produced from wheat (triticum spp) and almond seed flour blends


Journal of Bacteriology & Mycology: Open Access
Momoh Clement Owoicho, Ogar Richard Abba, Ogar Richard Abba

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Abstract

In this study, the qualify evaluation of noodles produced from wheat and almond seed composite flour was studied. A preliminary was carried out to ascertain the optimum acceptable level of almond seed flour in wheat flour noodle processing using 0-50%w/w, samples were subjected to sensory evaluation and the most acceptable samples was chosen. Hence, in the main study, level of almond seed flour was varied within the most acceptable level using 5, 10, 15 and 20% w/w inclusion giving rise to four samples. Functional properties, anti-nutrient content, proximate composition, essential amino acid profile, selected mineral content, textural and cooking analyses and sensory evaluation were done using standard methods. The bulk densities of the blend ranged from 0.801 to 0.884 g/ml, WAC, ranged from 2.20g/g to 3.60g/g and swelling index ranged from 6.27 to 2.27 as the proportion of almond seed flour increased from 0-20 %. The values of phytate, oxalate, and tannin range from 0.12 to 0.75g/100g, 0.03 to 0.92g/100g and 0.08 to 1.23g/100g respectively. An increase (9.99 % - 14.55 %) in protein content was observed in the flour blends with increased addition of almond flour, there were significant difference (P<0.05) in mean samples. Lysine value ranged from 3.44 to 5.09%, Valine value ranged from 3.71 to 5.01% and leucine value ranged from 7.06 to 7.24% as the level of almond flour increases from 0 to 20% in the flour blends. Potassium (412.40 mg/100g), magnesium (167.00mg/100g) and calcium (66.55mg/100g) were predominant minerals in the formulated noodles while Iron and sodium were found in low concentration. The values of B1, B2 , B3 ,B6 B9, C, D and E ranged from 1.95 to 2.12mg/100g, 0.45 to 1.12 mg/100g, 0.72 to 0.68mg/100g, 1.25 to 2.12mg/100g, 12.09 to 22.02mg/100g, 19.55 to 22.12 and 0.21 to 2.12 mg/100g respectively as the proportion of almond seed increases from 0 to 20% in the blends used in noodle preparation. The results for length, porosity apparent density and weight for noodle sample from wheat flour (control) were 3.34cm, 0.52mm, 0.87 and 1.94 g respectively. The corresponding values for noodle from 95% wheat flour and 5% almond seed flour were 3.25cm, 0.50mm, 0.89 and 1.93g respectively. . Cooking time and cooking lose increased on addition of almond seed flour while percent rehydration reduced as the quantity of almond seed increased in the noodle samples. Blend formulation 80:20 W : A was mostly acceptable. This study therefore has presented a way of increasing consumption and utilization of almond seed with high nutritional content yet are underutilized increasing food security, providing more affordable noodle from local available food sources and further converts waste to wealth.

Keywords

noodles, almond seed and wheat, protein, nutritional, Nigeria

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