Making biodiversity work for coffee production. A case study of Gayo Arabica coffee in Indonesia
- MOJ Ecology & Environmental Sciences
Rita Andini,1 Murna Muzaifa,2 Leni Marlina,3 Muhammad Ikhsan Sulaiman,2 Rachman Jaya,4 Ali M Muslih,1 Heru P Widayat2
Biodiversity is defined as the variety of life encompassing the ‘existing’ variations at all level, starting from the tiny genes within a species up to a broader sense consisted of habitats within ecosystem. It is urgently needed as long as human is still exist on this earth. Therefore, its proper utilization and correct application of biodiversity bring great advantage in tangible and non-tangible benefits. Indonesia is known as the third largest biodiversity hotspots; both its flora and fauna. It has also tremendous diverse ecosystems extended from west to east; with amplitude of variation ranging from humid tropical rain forests until a very dry savannah type at the eastern part of Nusa Tenggara. Furthermore, Indonesia is also known as the fourth world highest producer of coffee; with a total production 11,49 million kg in 2016-2017. The Gayo highlands on the northern tip of Sumatra are known as the major production of arabica coffee. There, up to ten varieties of commercial arabica coffee are planted on the highlands. The origin of coffee is in Ethiopia, which is believed as the center of the commercial coffee species in this world: C. arabica and C. canephora. The objective of this paper is to review the status of coffee, esp. the arabica one from various perspectives, ranging from the biology, history of coffee, the processing of coffee (wet vs. dry methods), and how the component of natural biodiversity can be applied in order to enhance the coffee production, particularly on the Gayo highlands.
aceh, Arabica, livelihoods, sustainable