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Higher bioavailability of Cu and Zn in the eastern part of Johore Causeway: Will the pattern remain the same beyond 2030?

MOJ Biology and Medicine
Chee Kong Yap,1 Shih Hao Tony Peng,2 Chee Wah Yap,3 Wen Siang Tan,4 Mohamad Saupi Ismail5,6


The purpose of this paper is to discuss Cu and Zn concentrations in Perna viridis soft tissues from the western and eastern parts of Johore Singapore Causeway. The polluted eastern portion of the Causeway had greater levels of Cu and Zn in different areas of the soft tissues of mussels than the western part. This indicated the eastern section of the semi-enclosed Causeway had higher Cu and Zn bioavailability than the western part. With some reports of high metal levels in the eastern part of the Causeway from 2015 to 2018, it is predicted that there will be a plausible constant source of anthropogenic metal contamination in the eastern part of the Causeway beyond 2030 if anthropogenic activities are not effectively controlled.


different tissues, metal distribution, mussels, biomonitoring organs