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Status of heavy metals contamination in drinking water of district D. G. Khan, Punjab, Pakistan

International Journal of Hydrology
Farhad Ahmad,1 Aniqa  Batool,1 Muhammad Asad Ghufran,2 Syeda Sabahat Kazmi3

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Anthropogenic activities are the major cause of environmental pollution. Industrialization, urbanization and agriculture activities are also causing huge troubles linked to human health in Pakistan. Heavy metals contamination has increased in drinking water because of urbanization and agricultural activities. Being one of the urbanized Cities, Dera Ghazi Khan has also been subjected to the hastily increasing harms of contamination. The respective study was planned to evaluate the heavy metals concentrations and identification of high risk areas for the inhabitants living in the city. Total ninety-six samples of drinking water were collected. TDS and EC were in the range of 1.48 to 8.412 mg/L and1.41 to 9.4┬ÁS/cm respectively. TSS was from 40 to 599 mg/L which were exceeding WHO guidelines in eight samples. Heavy metals such as Ni, Cr, Zn, Pb and Cd were measured through atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Zn average value was well within WHO standard while Pb was exceeded in thirty-nine samples. Cd was exceeded in fifteen samples; Cr and Ni were exceeded in eighteen samples. Sources of heavy metals identified as agricultural activities, domestic and commercial effluent. Ground water samples were found potable at some locations but at the same time pose serious threat to human health due to heavy metals above permissible limits.


drinking water, heavy metals, environmental, pollution, dera ghazi khan