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Diabetes potentiates ROS production in granulocytes from patients with chronic kidney disease


Endocrinology & Metabolism International Journal
Gabriela Rossi Ferreira, Caroline Maria Oliveira Volpe, Pedro Henrique Villar-Delfino, Fabiana Rocha Silva, José Augusto Nogueira-Machado

Abstract

Background: Type 2 diabetes (DM2) and chronic kidney disease (CKD) are inflammatory pathologies. Diabetes is characterized by hyperglycemia and CKD by the gradual and irreversible loss of kidney function. Both diseases develop oxidative stress, and reactive oxygen species (ROS) play a pivotal role in the pathogenesis. This study aimed to determine ROS production by granulocytes from renal patients (CKD) with or without diabetes.
Methods: Granulocytes from patients with DM2, CKD, CKD-DM2, and healthy controls were purified using the Ficoll-Hypaque gradient method. Granulocyte ROS generation in the absence or the presence of PDB (an activator of NADPH-oxidase) or Concanavalin A (Toll- receptor 3,9 activator) was evaluated in a luminol-dependent chemiluminescence method. The cell-free DNA in the serum of DM2, CKD, and CKD-DM2 patients was measured by the fluorescence method before and after hemodialysis.
Results: Our results show a significant increase in ROS production by granulocytes from patients with CKD, DM2, and CKD-DM2 compared to healthy control (p<0.05). CKD-DM2 group produced the most significant ROS levels with or without NADPH-oxidase activation. ROS production showed a significant increase in the presence of ConA. In contrast, mitochondrial (internal) ROS showed a different ROS response. DNA extrusion was higher in the CKD-DM2 group after hemodialysis suggesting cell death.
Conclusion: The results demonstrated that CKD-DM2 patients produced high ROS generation levels and increased DNA extrusion after hemodialysis. It may suggest that CKD-DM2 disease is more severe and has a worse clinical prognosis.

Keywords

Type 2 diabetes mellitus, Chronic kidney disease, Innate immunity, Reactive oxygen species, Toll-like 9 receptor

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