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The use of immune system cell types for cure of metastatic cancer: personalised medicine concept


Journal of Cancer Prevention & Current Research
Ebenezer Olaleye Olajuyin,1 Pravin D Potdar,2 Olorunfemi Ayeotan,3 Kehinde Sulaiman Ayinde,4 Tioluwani Victor Olubiyi,5 Ilerioluwa Gabriel Oke,6 Olajumoke Saidat Aluko,7 Peter Hollands8

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Abstract

Cancer is initiated by alteration or mutation of genes which may occur naturally i.e. inherited or acquired over the years as a result of environmental factors, exposure to certain chemicals (carcinogens), exposure to various forms of radiations, lifestyles not limited to smoking , drinking et cetera. In general, the cell cycle possesses all machinery to control cell proliferation, a process defeated in cancer cells. Mutation in proto-Oncogenes and loss of function in Tumour suppressor genes leads to excessive proliferation of cells and as well a decrease in sensitivity of the control machineries which ordinarily would have signal the cell to initiate differentiation, proliferation or go into senescence. During cancer progression, various components of the innate and adaptive immunity are activated in effort to reduce or remove the caner mediated inflammation but tumour cells cunningly avoid the immune attack posed by these cells. Various cancer cells have unique mechanisms through which they escape from the immune responses making them resistance to actions of the immune system. In effort to treat various forms of malignancies, scientists have been able to device means by which the immune system can be modified in other to fight cancer cells, this form of treatment that focuses on the modification of the innate and adaptive immune system in treatment of cancer is termed immunotherapy.

Keywords

cancer, immune system, personalized medicine, tumor, immune regulator, immunotherapy, therapeutics, pathogen, natural killer cells, important functions, non-self-antigens, foreign antigens, immunooncology

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