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Considering the four major problems in solar physics

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There are at least four major and long-standing problems in solar physics, which require crucial considerations. These problems have been pursued during the last fifty years or more. They are: (1) The high temperature of the solar corona (since 1942), (2) The cause of the solar wind (since 1958), (3) The formation of a pair of sunspots (since 1961), (4) The cause of solar flares (since 1958). The last two have well-accepted theories (thus, it may be considered to be understood), but there are actually many unsolved issues. Thus, it may be worthwhile to examine the four problems together. Although each problem is different and is extremely difficult, there seems to be one common reason, which has delayed the progress. It is almost complete lack of considering electric currents, in spite of the that they are all electromagnetic phenomena and curl B = J. The purpose of this paper is to suggest that the introduction of electric currents, instead of magnetic field lines, may open a new way to consider these long-standing problems.


solar wind corona sunspot flare