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Chemobiokinetics, biotoxicity and therapeutic overview of selected heavy metals poisoning: a review

Biodiversity International Journal
SOKAN-ADEAGA Adewale Allen,1 SOKANADEAGA Micheal Ayodeji,2 SOKANADEAGA Eniola Deborah,3 OKAREH Titus Oladapo,1 EDRIS Hoseinzadeh4

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Numerous debates exist as to the precise definition of the term "heavy metal" and which elements appropriately fit into such. Several authors rationalized the definition on atomic weight; others, based on specific gravity of greater than 4.0, or more than 5.0 while a few based it on chemical behaviour. Regardless of one’s choice of classification, heavy metal toxicity is a rare diagnosis. However, if undetected or inefficiently managed, heavy metal exposure can lead to remarkably disability and death. This paper gives a succinct and systematic review on the emission, absorption, metabolism and excretion of selected heavy metals. It also delves into their biotoxic effects on the human wellbeing and the ecosystem in general with the mechanisms of their actions. It concludes with the various therapeutic options and management plans for different heavy metal poisoning. This review posits that though heavy metal poisoning could be clinically diagnosed and medically treated, the most appropriate measure is to avoid heavy metal contamination and its subsequent human exposure and toxicity.Thus exposure monitoring and possible intervention for minimizing marginal exposure of humans to heavy metals in the surrounding may be a giant stride towards prevention. National and international synergy is pivot for designing right measures for the prevention of heavy metal toxicity.


heavy metals, biotoxicity, bioaccumulation, chemobiokinetics, heavy metals treatment