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Efficacy and safety of Hydroxychloroquine in treating COVID-19 pneumonia: uncertainty of data and changing treatment protocols

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The new coronavirus disease which emerged in Wuhan late in 2019 is caused by SARS CoV2, it was named COVID-19 and declared a pandemic by the world health organization (WHO). Human coronavirus normally causes mild disease. The new COVID-19 emerged from bats to human and it’s associated with highly infectious disease. The disease clinical features range from an asymptomatic state to mild fever, cough, severe respiratory disease, and multiple organ failures. The disease is confirmed by detecting the virus genome using polymerase chain reaction and antibody detection is used for screening. Radiologic imaging is nonspecific but can help in staging lung involvement. Treatment of patients with COVID-19 is generally supportive, however oxygen and ventilatory support might be needed in some of the cases. Dexamethasone proved to decrease mortality in critically ill patients, but up to date no specific treatment or vaccine is available and many drugs are under clinical trials including ritonavir and remdesivir. Hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) which is an old antimalarial drug, has given hope, but now it’s a victim for information uncertainty and contravention of clinical reports. The objective of this article is to review the current reports on hydroxychloroquine efficacy and safety in the treatment of COVID 19 patients


COVID19, hydroxychloroquine, ritonavir, SARS CoV2, Wuhan