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Factors associated with sleep habits and disorders in the 1st grade and 2nd-6th grade Malian medical students

MOJ Public Health
Modibo Sangare,1,2 Mahamane Maiga,1 Housseini Dolo,1 Ahmed Dian Sidibe,3 Fatoumata Doumbia,1 Adama Karembe,1 Mohamed S Haidara,1 Oumar Sidibe,3 Modibo Kouyate,4 Seidina Diakite,2,3 Karim Traore,3 Thomas Coulibaly,5 Souleymane Papa Coulibaly,6 Kadiatou Traore,6 Seydou Doumbia,1 Mahamadou Diakite,3 Sekou F Traore,3 Souleymane Coulibaly,6 Arouna Togora,6 Cheick Oumar Guinto,5 Callixte Kuate,7 Hyung Goo Kim,8 Gordon A Awandare,2 Drissa Traore,1 Youssoufa Maiga9

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Background: Sleep habits and sleep problems revealed a poor quality sleep associated with a poor academic performance in medical students. A sleep disorder can mostly be an early manifestation of psychological diseases. No studies have been conducted to investigate sleep disorders in medical students in Mali. In this study, we aimed to identify the potential factors for sleep disorders and its consequences in first versus second to sixth grade medical students in Mali
Methods: We conducted a pilot qualitative cross sectional study to interview 347 medical students from first to sixth grade at the faculty of Medicine and Odontostomatology (FMOS) during the academic year 2017-2018 to fill out our study questionnaire
Results: The proportion of students who confessed to drinking coffee once or twice daily were significantly different between the two groups (1st grade and 2nd-6th grade) with p=0.0004. First grade medical students had less than six (6) hours of daily sleep (p< 0.00001), difficulty to stay alert (p<0.002) or to concentrate (p<0.0003) or to remain still (p<0.0001) in the classroom. They reported having a poor memory (p<0.00003), being on a bad mood (p<0.0001) and had difficulty to initiate sleep (p=0.02) and woke up early in the morning (p<0.00005). The reported sleep quality was poorer in first grade medical students (p<0.0008) and complained more about daytime sleepiness in the classroom (p<0.009). Fewer first grade medical students reported snoring (p<0.0001), somnambulism (p=0.03) and narcolepsy (p=0.03) than second to sixth grade medical students. The proportion of first grade medical students who reported jogging in the evening/night was lower than those in second to sixth grade (p=0.04)
Conclusion and implications for translation: In light of our findings and literature review, first grade medical students should benefit from teaching on time and stress management. Sleep should be taught as an integral part of the human physiology courses for first and second year medical students.  Relevant authorities at the medical school must provide easily accessible and affordable psychological support for students with sleep disturbances and disorders. Further sleep studies should be conducted to properly investigate sleep disorders in medical students in Mali


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