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Characterization of freeze-dried powdered extracts of Pennisetum glaucum (Poaceae) grains and its galactogogue properties in an animal model

Journal of Analytical & Pharmaceutical Research
Taoheed A Arogundade,1 Adenike Okunlola,1 Tolulope O Ajala,1 Oluwasanmi O Aina2

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Background: The aim of this study was to obtain milk extracts from aqueous slurry of Pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum) grains, freeze-dry the extracts into powders, characterize the powders and evaluate for galactogogue activity in female Wistar rats, in comparison with domperidone, a dopamine antagonist used as a lactogenic agent. Methods: The milk extracts were freeze-dried into powder and the powders were characterized for morphology, crystallinity (Fourier Transform Infra-red spectroscopy, FTIR) and X-ray diffraction analysis, XRD), viscosity, flow and compaction properties. Animal studies were carried out to evaluate the galactogogue effect and histopathological examination was done on the 15th day of parturition. Toxicological testing to determine the LD50 was performed using Lorke’s method. Results: The morphology, FTIR and XRD spectra confirmed the disruption of the granules when processed. Freeze-drying improved flow while compaction studies revealed good compactibility of the freeze-dried powders. The results of the histopathological examination revealed that Pearl millet extracts improved milk secretion and milk emptying in rats. The LD50 showed that the highest dose of 6000µg/kg gave no mortality. Conclusion: The freeze-dried powders of Pearl millet extracts increased secretion and emptying of milk in animals, confirming it’s potential as a galactogogue for use in humans and the dairy industry.


Pennisetum glaucumgrains, freeze-dried powdered extracts, powder compaction properties, galactagogue effect