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Musculoskeletal disorders following excessive smartphone usage - a review article

MOJ Orthopedics & Rheumatology
Vikram Khanna,1 Harish Chandra Khanna2

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Smartphone usage is growing exponentially in recent times. Smartphone usage requires users to be in awkward postures for long periods of time which increases the chances of musculoskeletal disorders. In this review article, we have tried to assess the musculoskeletal disorders occurring due to excessive smartphone usage. The results show increased muscle activity of the upper trapezius and the neck muscles along with an increase in the head tilting and head flexion. Frequent smartphone usage also leads to fatigue and pain in the hand. This may lead to pain and musculoskeletal disorders. So in conclusion, it can be said that increased smartphone usage leads to musculoskeletal conditions.


smartphone, musculoskeletal, posture, hand, wrist, irreplaceable part, pain/discomfort, smartphone usage, COVID 19 pandemic, long durations, neck pain, cervical flexion, trapezial muscles, hand performance, grip strength, muscle spasm, head-neck angle, pain threshold