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Periodontal disease and its relationship with pregnancy problems: is everything clear?

Journal of Dental Health, Oral Disorders & Therapy
Camila Barreto Barbieri, Fernanda Pasquinelli, Caio Vinicius G Roman-Torres

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Periodontal disease is the result of an interactive process between dental biofilm and periodontal tissues through cellular and vascular responses in which the primary etiologic factor of periodontal diseases is bacterial infection. Periodontitis has been associated with systemic changes, such as pregnancy complications such as preterm birth and low birth weight. The birth of low body weight babies remains the main cause of perinatal morbidity and mortality, affecting about 10% of all births. The objective of this literature review, narrative, was to show the relationship between periodontal disease and pregnant women with premature birth and / or low birth weight baby. Articles published between 1996 and 2020, in English and Portuguese, were evaluated in the following databases: Pumed, Lilacs, Scielo, Cochrane Library, Scopus, Web of Science, Embase and Bireme. Research indicates that gingivitis and periodontitis can promote gestational changes such as premature birth and / or low weight of the baby, several studies have evaluated these conditions, but there is a variability in the methodology used and characterization of periodontal disease. Elevated levels of cytokines produced by periodontal disease, induce the body to go into early labor. For this, the levels of cytokines are similar to those produced by the uterus and placenta in the ninth month of pregnancy. The increase in pregnancy hormones seems to aggravate gingival and periodontal disease, with an interrelation between pregnancy and periodontal conditions. Current evidence has pointed out that women in gestational periods need dental intervention to control periodontal disease, as these strategies serve to reduce preterm labor. The investigators concluded that there are clinical changes that are related to the accumulation of dental biofilm and its interference in the course of the gestational period, however, there is a need for further studies for this relationship to be definitively confirmed.


periodontal disease, pregnancy, pre-term birth, low birth weight, igarette, alcohol, drugs, genitourinary infections, prenatal care, parity, phagocytic macrophages, fetal-placental unit, pregnancy, periodontal disease