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Sialic acid and glycosaminoglycans as biomarkers in dental fluorosis and periodontal diseases

International Journal of Molecular Biology: Open Access
Dr Aswin Prasad S, Dr Liya Anil, Dr K L Vandana

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The disease severity of periodontal disease and its phases of activity and remission are not able to be detected by the routine clinical and radiographic methods. The oral diagnostic fluids like saliva, GCF, serum and plasma has served as a good source for identification of biomarkers in periodontitis. However every method has its own advantage and disadvantage. The various biomarkers in GCF have been a good source for examination and correlation of different phases of periodontal health and disease specifically in a non-invasive mode. There are several biochemical markers assessed in periodontitis patients (with or without fluorosis) to ascertain indirectly the degree of destruction of periodontal tissues. Glycosaminoglycans (GAG) and Sialic Acid (SA) are the two important biomarkers of GCF which are used for assessment of periodontal destruction and defence activity respectively. This paper reviews on the biologic functions of Sialic acid and Glycosaminoglycans and the studies related to these two biomarkers.


fluororsis, periodontitis, gingival crevicular fluid, serum, saliva, sialic acid, glycosaminoglycans