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Developmental enamel defects and other oral problems in children with microcephaly associate with fetal exposure to zika virus (ZIKV)


International Journal of Pregnancy & Child Birth
Erica Santana D Agostino,1 Janeusa RitaLeite Primo Chagas,2 Tatiana Frederico deAlmeida,3 Maria Beatriz Barreto de SousaCabral,3 Maria Cristina Teixeira Cangussu,3 Maria Isabel Pereira Vianna3

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Abstract

Introduction: Children with microcephaly as a result of fetal exposure to the Zika virus (ZIKV) may experience brain changes, neurological abnormalities, bone and craniofacial deformities.

Objective: The objective of this study was to describe oral problems and oral health habits involving children in early childhood with microcephaly associated with fetal exposure to ZIKV.

Methodology: A cross-sectional study was carried out on a sample of children with microcephaly, exposed to ZIKV during the pregnancy, attended at the Neuropediatrics outpatient clinic of a reference center in Salvador-BA. Clinical examination of oral conditions and interviews with mothers/ guardians were performed to obtain sociodemographic data and lifestyle habits. A descriptive analysis of the variables and exploratory analysis of factors associated with defects in enamel development (DDE) were done using Pearson’s chi square and a significance level of 5%.

Results: 74 children participated in the study and a higher frequency of the following oral conditions was observed: delayed eruption chronology (100%), dental biofilm (55.88%) and enamel defects (DDE) (22.06%). Bohn nodules (6.85%), micro dents (2.70%) and ectopically positioned dental elements (1.35%) were less frequent. Only one of them showed incipient caries lesion (1.47%). The occurrence of DDE was more frequent among those with ogival palate, normal weight at birth and who did not have an eruptive delay (p <0.05). In oral habits, 52.70% used a pacifier, 50% feeding at night, 66.22% used sugar and 52.24% brushed teeth before bed.

Conclusion: Monitoring oral health conditions is necessary to minimize oral health problems in these children.

Keywords

microcephaly, zika virus, oral health, children

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