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Transient global amnesia associated with migraine triggered by anxiety under the effects of the coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic: A case report


MOJ Clinical & Medical Case Reports
Chunhui Yang,1 Junyi Zhang,2 Sandeep Gaonkar1

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Abstract

Transient global amnesia (TGA) is a clinical syndrome featured with the sudden onset of primarily short-term loss of anterograde as well as a milder decline of retrograde memory. The etiology is still unclear. Various risk factors relate with TGA and it is thought the vulnerability of CA1 neurons to metabolic stress plays an important role in the pathophysiological cascade. During the quarantine period of the corona virus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, a 53-year-old Asian woman with 30 years of migraine history presented the emergency department for the first time to evaluate a sudden onset confusion and forgetfulness with repetitive questioning during migraine attack. Neurologic examination showed preserved orientations for time and person and no abnormalities in motor, speech, sensory, coordination, or cranial nerves. No focal Neurologic finding. Her memory gradually improved and restored to normal baseline over the course of a 24-hour in-patient stay. However, are trograde memory gap still existed a month after the TGA attack. The pathogenesis of TGA is unknown and many risk factors are associated with it, but among them migraine is considered a major risk factor, particularly in female patients aged 40-60 years. The anxiety stressor is a significant trigger for TGA. The pathophysiology argues that the vulnerability of CA1 neurons to metabolic stress plays an important role in TGA.

Keywords

Transient global amnesia (TGA), migraine, amnesia, anterograde memory, short term memory, COVID-19 pandemic, anxiety stressor, arterial ischemia, migraine, venous congestion

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