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Features of disturbances of functions of cellular membranes in patients with chronic kidney disease, treated with programmed hemodialysis


Urology & Nephrology Open Access Journal
Kazakova  Irina Aleksandrovna, Yevgeniy Nikolaevich Ievlev

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Abstract

In  recent  years,  there  has  been  a  steady  increase  in  the  number  of  patients  receiving  programmed  hemodialysis  due  to  the  annual  increase  in  the  capacity  of  the  dialysis  centers, the progression of socially significant diseases, such as diabetes mellitus, arterial hypertension,  etc.  In  the  last  decade,  there  has  been  a  significant  improvement  in  the quality of the dialysis procedure, and as a result, the number of patients with a long-term dialysis  experience  is  growing.1–3  Stage  5  chronic  kidney  disease  (CKD)  is  accompanied  by a disturbance of all the functions of the body’s systems and is reflected in a change of intracellular processes, including a disturbance of the structural and functional properties of  cell  membranes.  The  works  from  the  list  of  references  indicate  that  destabilization  of  red blood cell (RBC) membranes can be influenced by such systemic and organ factors as tissue ischemia, microbial or immune inflammation. The level of nonspecific membrane stabilizing  processes  reveals  the  nature  of  damage  in  organs  and  organsystems.4,8,17,19 In  vivo  study  of  the  properties  of  cell  membranes  can  directly  and  indirectly  assess  the  regulation of all biological processes in the cells of the body.8,15 The surface electric charge of the membrane is one of the main physical characteristics of RBC, the value of which is estimated by their electrophoretic mobility.

Electrophoretic mobility of erythrocytes (EME) is the ability of RBC to move in an electric field with a speed depending on the value of their surface electric charge of the membrane.RBC must have a stable value of the surface electric charge for the adequate functioning and maintenance of homeostasis of the body. The physical and chemical state of the cell membrane  (along  with  the  composition  of  the  environment  surrounding  the  cell)  has  a  crucial influence on the value of EME. In the literature there are publications indicating a  decrease  in  the  electric  charge  of  RBC  in  sepsis,  intestinal  diseases,  viral  diseases,  pneumonia, rheumatic diseases, as well as under stress.1–8,16,18,20 Terminal conditions, such as CKD 5D, cause changes in the density of the surface electric charge of the blood corpuscles, which are accompanied by a disturbance of the stability of the cell suspension and functional activity  of  cells.  Thus,  the  electrophoretic  mobility  of  RBC  in  hemodialysis  patients  is  virtually unexplored. The emergence of new data is necessary, including, information about the impact of drug therapy on the charge of RBC membranes for the further appointment of adequate therapy.

Keywords

electrophoretic mobility of erythrocytes, chronic kidney disease, hemodialysis, hypertension, antihypertensive therapy

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