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A systematic review of the main electrolytes concentrations in the prostate fluid of normal gland


The prostate gland is subject to various disorders. The etiology and pathogenesis of these diseases are not well understood. Moreover, despite technological advancements, the differential diagnostics of prostate disorders has become progressively more complex and controversial. It was suggested that the measurement of main electrolytes levels in expressed prostatic fluid (EPF) may be useful as a biomarker. This suggestion promoted more detailed studies of the Ca, Cl, K, Mg, and Na concentrations in the EPF of healthy subjects. The present systematic analysis included 1885 studies, all of which were published in the years from 1942 to 2019 and selected by searching the databases Scopus, PubMed, Medline, Elsevier-Embase, Cochrane Library, and the Web of Science. The articles were analyzed and “Median of Means” and “Range of Means” were used to examine heterogeneity of Ca, Cl, K, Mg, and Na concentrations in EPF of apparently healthy men. The objective analysis was performed on data from the 6 studies, with more than 62 subjects. It was found that the median of means for Ca, Cl, K, Mg, and Na concentrations in prostatic fluid of apparently healthy men were 1201, 1350, 1880, 486, and 3517 mg/L, respectively. Because of small sample size and high data heterogeneity, we recommend other primary studies.


prostate, prostatic fluid, biomarkers, main electrolytes, calcium, chlorine, potassium,magnesium, sodium