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Bacteriological and physicochemical analyses of well water used for drinking in Ekpoma-Edo State, Nigeria

Journal of Microbiology & Experimentation
Osatohanmwen Osarenmwinda, Aruya Graceann Idaehor 

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In this Study, ten (10) samples of well water was randomly collected from different locations around Ekpoma, Esan West Local Government Area of Edo State and examined for their physicochemical and Microbiological quality using standard methods. The results derived were compared with the Nigerian Industrial Standards (NIS) and World Health Organisation (WHO) standards for drinking water. Three (3) of the samples did not agree with turbidity, while others were within the maximum permissible limits set for pH, temperature, colour, odour, conductivity, dissolved oxygen, alkalinity, acidity, chloride and biological oxygen demand. The findings of the microbiological analysis of the well water samples show that all the well water was contaminated with bacteria pathogens mostly Escherichia coli (60%), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (50%), Staphylococcus aureus (50%), Salmonella Sp (30%), Shigella sp (40%), Vibrio chloreae (30%) and Proteus sp (50%). The presences of these bacteria in the samples were at variance with the acceptable limit for most probable number (MPN) per 100ml set for untreated drinking water. Pathogen enumeration for SalmonellaShigella and Vibrio cholerae were high. The total aerobic bacteria counts (ABC) were also high for all the sample areas assessed. The occurrence of these microbes in the well water used for drinking, washing of meats and for ablution is germane to public health because they are often implicated with gastro-intestinal water borne infections. Thus personal hygiene and clean environment should be constantly maintained around the wells to avoid contamination with bacteria pathogens


well water, physicochemical, microbiological, contamination, most probable number (MPN), aerobic bacterial count (ABC), heterotrophic plate count (HPC), coliforms