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Bacterial colonization of the vagina, oropharynx, breast milk and anterior nares of neonates among HIV seropositive pregnant women and seronegative pregnant counterparts

Journal of Microbiology & Experimentation
Kwashie Ajibade Ako-Nai, Blessing Omo-Omorodion


Introduction: The human Immunodefiency virus/acquired immune deficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) is a scourge to mankind because the disease has devastated and decimated communities worldwide in the last two or more decades, yet there is no cure. Incidence of HIV/AIDS in Nigeria is high, where 10% of the global incidence occurs. The study determined the colonization of the vagina, oropharynx, breast milk and nares of neonates in clinics at Akure South and Ifedore Local Government Area (LGA) in Ondo State, Nigeria from November 2015 to December 2016.
Methodology: Two hundred and forty pregnant women aged 19-43 years were involved in the study. 114 HIV seropositive subjects mean age 31.81 years and 126 HIV seronegative subjects mean age 29.05 years as controls. HIV serostatus of each participant was determined by HIV-1/2 strip and confirmed by the Abbott enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay procedure. High vaginal sawbs, breast milk samples, oropharynx swabs and nares of each neonate were collected using sterile cotton-tipped applicator and introducing each into freshly prepared thioglycollate fluid medium for growth. Bacterial isolates were charcterised by standard microbiological methods and API kits.
Results: 2,148 bacterial isolates were recovered from the four study sites, HVS 1,156(53.8%), oropharynx 466(21.7%), breast milk samples 153(7.1%) and anterior nares of neonates 373(17.4%). Our study showed 60.5% against 39.5%, 68.2% compared to 31.8% and 73.8% against 26.2% of the predominant pathogens encountered among HIV seropositive and seroneagtive subjects respectively.
Conclusion: HVS constituted the major isolates (53.8%), oropharynx (21.7%), breast milk (7.1%) and nares of neonates (17.4%).


HIV, bacterial colonization, HVS, oropharynx, breast milk, anterior nares of neonates